Based in Milan, AFJ Instruments manufactures innovative, reliable and cost-effective instrumentation, complying with EMC, RF-Monitoring and Product Safety Standards. Cutting-edge technology, comprehensive product features and a competitive price/performance ratio have ensured that AFJ have developed a loyal following.
Located in San Diego USA, AMETEK Programmable Power boasts one of the industries' broadest portfolios of programmable power products under the well-known and respected Sorensen, Elgar, California Instruments and AMREL brands. AMETEK's programmable power supplies and power sources serve a wide range of stimulus (T&M) and process power needs in applications including semiconductor fabrication, commercial and defence ATE, oil exploration, solar array and battery string simulation, avionics, general R&D and EMC compliance testing.
Established in Germany in 2007, Gauss Instruments has quickly gained a reputation as the world’s premier manufacturer of highest performance EMC test equipment and most advanced EMI test solutions. Combining their unrivalled knowledge of real-time digital signal processing, millimetre and microwave technologies, Gauss Instruments have developed receiver and analyzer solutions that delivering speeds and analysis capabilities several orders of magnitude greater than any other measurement equipment available.
Located close to Leicester City in England, Newtons4th Ltd (abbreviated to N4L) was established in 1997 to design, manufacture and support innovative electronic test instrumentation to a world-wide market. Specialising in sophisticated test equipment, particularly related to phase measurement, their product portfolio includes Power Analyzers, Frequency Response Analyzers (gain/phase analyzers), Impedance Analyzers, Vector Voltmeters, Phase Meters, true RMS voltmeters, Selective Level Meters and Laboratory Power Amplifiers.
Teseq® offers the world’s most comprehensive range of EMC systems for immunity and emissions testing. Founded on a world-class research and development program and backed by state-of-the-art global manufacturing, Teseq’s membership in the relevant international committees demonstrates their commitment to the industry. Their unique “modular” approach to EMC breaks down the barriers between traditionally separate test functions and allows optimization of the test process to help customers bring products to market more quickly.
Enjoying a global reputation for reliability & affordability, GW Instek has been dedicated to the development of cost-effective solutions for the electronics test and measurement industry since 1975 and are sold to more than 80 countries worldwide. GW Instek have more than 300 product lines, ranging from oscilloscopes, spectrum analysers, signal sources, basic test & measurement instruments to other safety & monitoring systems. With durable quality, affordable prices and great performance, GW Instek has become one of the most trusted brands in the world.
Instruments For Industry (IFI) has been designing and manufacturing RF Amplifiers, Solid State Amplifiers and Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) Amplifiers (pulsed, CW and combination amps) since 1953. IFI offers the broadest range of RF Microwave Amplifiers manufactured by any company in the world today! With TWTA and Solid-State Amplifier installations world wide, products for both commercial and military applications, IFI continually proves itself as number one in providing the most advanced RF Microwave amplifier transmitter solutions available today.
Established in 1987 on the Isle of Wight in England, Milmega is a leading specialist in the design and manufacture of solid state, high-power microwave and RF amplifiers. The company's core strength lies in the development of broadband Class A amplifiers, typically operating in the 80MHz to 6GHz range with output powers from 10W to above 1kW. Their broadband amplifier products serve the EMC, communications, science and defence markets around the world.
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Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown. A buildup of static electricity can be caused by turbocharging or by electrostatic induction.
Simulates electrostatic discharge events directly to the product, or to a nearby conductive surface.
The ESD test requires that discharges be made to all exposed surfaces of the EUT, including connector back shells. Contact discharge is to the conducting surfaces of the product and air gap discharges are to non-conducting surfaces. The test also requires that contact discharges be made to a horizontal reference plane and vertical reference plane at locations 10cm from the front, rear and sides of the EUT. The ESD Simulators/Generators/Guns can be used for ESD Testing.
Typical rise time of the ESD pulse waveform is approximately 0.7 - 1nS with a hold time of 30 - 60 nS. (See image)
The test simulates ESD events that occur when the user touches the equipment under test or nearby metallic objects (e.g. filing cabinets). The test levels for both the heavy industrial and light industrial/commercial/residential standards are ±2kV and ±4kV for the contact discharge method and ±2kV, ±4kV, and ±8kV for the air gap discharge method.
A transient event is a short-lived burst of energy in a system caused by a sudden change of state. The source of the transient energy may be an internal event or a nearby event. The energy then couples to other parts of the system, typically appearing as a short burst of oscillation.
In electrical and electronic engineering such electromagnetic pulses (EMP) occur internally as the result of the operation of switching devices. Engineers use voltage regulators and surge protectors to prevent transients in electricity from affecting delicate equipment. External sources include lightning (LEMP), electrostatic discharge (ESD) and nuclear EMP (NEMP).
Within Electromagnetic compatibility testing, transients are deliberately administered to electronic equipment for testing their performance and resilience to transient interference. Many such tests administer the induced fast transient oscillation directly, in the form of a damped sine wave, rather than attempt to reproduce the original source. International standards define the magnitude and methods used to apply them.
Simulates high frequency electrical disturbance on power and signal lines due to the switching of inductive loads on the AC line.
The test waveform consists of a 15ms burst of pulses at 300ms intervals. The pulses have a rise time of 5ns and a dwell time of 50ns, with a repetition rate of 5 kHz.
For heavy industrial equipment the test levels are:
- AC lines; ±2kV
- DC lines;
- ±2kV Signal lines on cables that could be longer than 3m; ±1kV
- Process control lines and measurement lines; ±2kV
Noise is directly injected onto power lines through a capacitor and capacitive coupled onto I/O lines using a coupling trench. DC power ports connected to an AC-DC power adapter are not tested.
Surges, or transients, are brief overvoltage spikes or disturbances on a power waveform that can damage, degrade, or destroy electronic equipment within any home, commercial building, industrial, or manufacturing facility. Transients can reach amplitudes of tens of thousands of volts.
Simulates low frequency, high-energy electrical transients on power lines and long distance I/O lines (such as telephone lines) coupled from nearby lightning strikes.
Test is applied to AC and DC power ports. The open circuit signal wave-shape has as 1.2µs rise time and 50µs hold time. Surges are applied in common mode (line-to-ground) and in differential mode (line-to-line). All surges are synchronized to the 0°, 90°, 180° and 270° phase angles of the AC voltage. DC power ports are not tested if they are connected to an AC-DC power adapter, in which case the AC-DC adapter should be submitted for testing.
Test levels for the residential, commercial and light industrial generic standard are 2kV common mode and 1kV differential mode on AC power lines. For DC power lines, the test levels are 0.5kV for both differential and common mode. Although the test is not currently required for the heavy industrial generic standard, it suggests test levels of 4kV common mode and 2kV differential mode.
Simulates brown outs and blackouts on AC power lines.
This test is applied to AC power ports rated at less than 16 amps per phase. All voltage shifts are synchronized to the zero crossing of the AC voltage.
Typical test levels for the generic light industrial standard involve a 30 percent dip in the line voltage for 10ms, 60 percent dip for 100ms and dropout for 5000ms. There are currently no requirements for Heavy Industrial equipment.
All linear amplifier systems, when given a sufficiently strong input signal, will reach a point where the system departs from a linear relationship between input and output. At this point the system is said to be going into compression or beginning to saturate. Beyond this point, the linear relationship between input and output is no longer valid and the amplifier is no longer considered to be linear. An internationally recognised figure of merit, used for defining the extent of linearity of an amplifier, is the 1dB compression point. This is the point of –1dB departure from linearity. The output power of an amplifier cannot increase indefinitely and when an increase in input power generates no discernible increase in output power, the amplifier is said to be saturated, and by definition the output is not proportional to the input signal. This point is often referred to as Psat on a datasheet or sometimes P3dB. Generally, saturated power is of importance when considering the pulsed power requirements in something like automotive testing while linear power is of importance when considering the AM (amplitude modulation) waveform used in commercial EMC testing.
Thank you for helping our team select the correct product to facilitate testing to the various required standards. Our lab is now equipped with a range of Teseq, IFI and Milmega products and the entire solution fulfils our testing requirements. We really appreciate your technical advice & support.
EMC TEST ENGINEER
Aside from receiving information when we need to upgrade or purchase an item of test equipment, what we really need from an equipment partner is advice based on industry experience. Thank you for the many hours spent talking to us and answering our questions. This level of customer care is rare in this industry.
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The Teseq GTEM is a great testing tool to have. We are now performing all pre-compliance testing in-house and saving lots of money which we were spending earlier with test labs. It has given us significant more testing capability and flexibility. Thank you for your help.
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